Complete high-protein, high-calorie diet with a mix of fibers
A pressure wound is one caused by the restriction of blood flow resulting from prolonged pressure (crushed tissue), which can develop into necrosis of the affected tissue if not corrected.
There is a high prevalence of malnutrition in patients with pressure wounds, and it is regarded as a factor contributing to the development of pressure wounds and impaired healing.
Current guides recommend assessing the nutritional situation when there is no progress in healing the wound and the use of oral nutritional supplements when an oral diet is insufficient to meet requirements.
The nutritional recommendations for persons suffering from pressure wounds/contusions are as follows:
- Hypercaloric/hyperprotein diet
- Enrichment in arginine
- Intake of vitamin C and zinc
Several studies have shown that nutritional intervention with a supplement containing arginine reduces by half the time necessary for the complete healing of a pressure wound.
In addition, the most recently published ESPEN guidelines on clinical nutrition and hydration for elderly patients recommend that:
- Nutritional interventions should be provided to older patients at risk of pressure ulcers to prevent their development.
- Nutritional interventions should be provided to malnourished older patients with pressure ulcers to promote healing.
Emanuele Cereda, Catherine Klersy, Marcella Serioli, Aldo Crespi, and Federico D’Andrea, for the OligoElement Sore Trial Study Group. A Nutritional Formula Enriched With Arginine, Zinc, and Antioxidants for the Healing of Pressure Ulcers A Randomized Trial. 2015 American College of Physicians
Shahin ES, Meijers JM, Schols JM, Tannen A, Halfens RJ, Dassen T. The relationship between malnutrition parameters and pressure ulcers in hospitals and nursing homes. Nutrition. 2010;26:886-9.
National Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel, European Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel. Prevention and Treatment of Pressure Ulcers: Clinical Practice Guideline. Washington, DC: National Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel; 2009.
Volkert D, Beck AM, Cederholm T, Cruz-Jentoft A, Goisser S, Hooper L et al. ESPEN guideline on clinical nutrition and hydratation in geriatrics. Clin Nutr. 2019;38(1):10-47.
Asociación Profesional de Enfermeras de Ontario (Registered Nurses’ Association of Ontario, 2016). Valoración y manejo de las lesiones por presión para equipos interprofesionales, 2016 Tercera edición. Toronto, ON: Registered Nurses’ Association of Ontario.